Human clustering in coastal areas The coastal zone has gained a solid reputation as a place vocated for recreational activities and this is generally related to the presence of the sea. The relationship, however, does not appear univocal or simple: the sea can be perceived as a hostile element by humans and the more general question of whether the presence of the shore is in itself a favourable, repulsive, or irrelevant factor to settlement is a debatable point, at least for pre-industrial societies. Back in the early part of the 19th century, Friedrich Hegel regarded oceans and rivers as unifying elements rather than dividing ones, thus implying a trend towards the concentration of human settlements along them. 'The sea', he wrote, 'stimulates 1 courage and conquest, as well as profit and plunder', although he realized that this did not equally apply to all maritime peoples. In Hegel's view, different approaches to the sea were mainly the results of cultural factors and, in fact, he recognized that some people living in coastal areas perceive the sea as a dangerous and alien place and the shore as aftnis terrae.
Shorebirds and seabirds found on the east coast are truly world globetrotters with migration routes that span oceans and continents. Eastern Coastal Birds is the ideal pocket-sized, folding guide for the seasonal visitor or resident to identify commonly seen birds along the coast of eastern North America. This beautifully illustrated guide highlights over 140 familiar species and a map featuring prominent coastal birding hotspots. Laminated for durability, this lightweight, pocket-sized folding guide is an excellent source of portable information and ideal for field use by birders of all ages. Made in the USA.
From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain is an account of the making of a large part of the American landscape following European settlement. Drawing upon land survey records and early travellers' accounts, Dr Whitney reconstructs the 'virgin' forests and grasslands of the north-eastern and central United States during the pre-settlement period. He then documents successively the clearance and fragmentation of the region's woodlands, the harvest of the forest and its game, the ploughing of the prairies, and the draining of wetlands. The degree to which these activities altered the soil, climate, plant and animal communities, and water cycle are evaluated, and the sustainability of present-day ecosystems is brought into question in this account.
Process-based morphodynamic Modeling is one of the relatively new tools at the disposal of coastal scientists, engineers and managers. On paper, it offers the possibility to analyse morphological processes and to investigate the effects of various measures one might consider to alleviate some problems. For these to be applied in practice, a model should be relatively straightforward to set up. It should be accurate enough to represent the details of interest, it should run long enough and robustly to see the real effects happen, and the physical processes represented in such a way that the sediment generally goes in the right direction at the right rate. Next, practitioners must be able to judge if the patterns and outcomes of the model are realistic and finally, translate these colour pictures and vector plots to integrated parameters that are relevant to the client or end user. In a nutshell, this book provides an in-depth review of ways to model coastal processes, including many hands-on exercises.